West Virginia Code
1 - DEFINITIONS
2 - INSURANCE COMMISSIONER
3 - LICENSING, FEES AND TAXATION OF
3A - STATE OF ENTRY FOR FOREIGN INS
4 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
4A - ALL-PAYER CLAIMS DATABASE
5 - ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES OF
6 - THE INSURANCE POLICY
6A - CANCELLATION OR NONRENEWAL OF
6B - DECLINATION OF AUTOMOBILE LIAB
6C - GUARANTEED LOSS RATIOS AS APPL
6D - MOTOR VEHICLE REPAIR AND REPLA
6F - DISCLOSURE OF NONPUBLIC PERSON
7 - ASSETS AND LIABILITIES
8 - INVESTMENTS
8A - USE OF CLEARING CORPORATIONS A
9 - ADMINISTRATION OF DEPOSITS
10 - REHABILITATION AND LIQUIDATIO
11 - UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES
11A - INSURANCE SALES CONSUMER PRO
12 - INSURANCE PRODUCERS AND SOLIC
12A - CONTRACTUAL RELATIONSHIPS BE
12B - ADJUSTERS
12C - SURPLUS LINE
13 - LIFE INSURANCE
13A - VARIABLE CONTRACTS
13B - CHARITABLE GIFT ANNUITIES
13C - VIATICAL SETTLEMENTS ACT
14 - GROUP LIFE INSURANCE
15 - ACCIDENT AND SICKNESS INSURAN
15A - WEST VIRGINIA LONG-TERM CARE
15B - UNIFORM HEALTH CARE ADMINIST
15C - DIABETES INSURANCE
15D - INDIVIDUAL LIMITED HEALTH BE
15E - DISCOUNT MEDICAL PLAN ORGANI
16 - GROUP ACCIDENT AND SICKNESS I
16A - GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE CONVE
16B - ACCIDENT AND SICKNESS RATES
16C - EMPLOYER GROUP ACCIDENT AND
16D - MARKETING AND RATE PRACTICES
16E - CONTRACEPTIVE COVERAGE
16F - GROUP LIMITED HEALTH BENEFIT
16G - WEST VIRGINIA HEALTH BENEFIT
17 - FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE
17A - PROPERTY INSURANCE DECLINATI
18 - CASUALTY INSURANCE
19 - SURETY INSURANCE
20 - RATES AND RATING ORGANIZATION
20A - WEST VIRGINIA ESSENTIAL INSU
20B - RATES AND MALPRACTICE INSURA
20C - CANCELLATION OR NONRENEWAL O
20D - TAIL INSURANCE
20E - WEST VIRGINIA MEDICAL PROFES
20F - PHYSICIANS' MUTUAL INSURANCE
21 - RECIPROCAL INSURERS
22 - FARMERS' MUTUAL FIRE INSURANC
23 - FRATERNAL BENEFIT SOCIETIES
24 - HOSPITAL SERVICE CORPORATIONS
25 - HEALTH CARE CORPORATIONS
25A - HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZAT
25B - FEDERAL INSURANCE SUBSIDY FO
25C - HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZAT
25D - PREPAID LIMITED HEALTH SERVI
25E - PATIENTS' EYE CARE ACT
25F - COVERAGE FOR PATIENT COST OF
25G - PROVIDER SPONSORED NETWORKS
26 - WEST VIRGINIA GUARANTY ASSOCI
26A - WEST VIRGINIA LIFE AND HEALT
26B - WEST VIRGINIA HEALTH MAINTEN
27 - INSURANCE HOLDING COMPANY SYS
28 - INDIVIDUAL ACCIDENT AND SICKN
29 - LIFE AND ACCIDENT AND SICKNES
30 - MINE SUBSIDENCE INSURANCE
31 - CAPTIVE INSURANCE
31A - SPONSORED CAPTIVE INSURANCE
32 - RISK RETENTION ACT
33 - ANNUAL AUDITED FINANCIAL REPO
34 - ADMINISTRATIVE SUPERVISION
34A - STANDARDS AND COMMISSIONER'S
35 - CRIMINAL SANCTIONS FOR FAILUR
36 - BUSINESS TRANSACTED WITH PROD
37 - MANAGING GENERAL AGENTS
38 - REINSURANCE INTERMEDIARY ACT
39 - DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL TRANSA
40 - RISK-BASED CAPITAL (RBC) FOR
40A - RISKED-BASED CAPITAL FOR HEA
40B - RISK MANAGEMENT AND OWN RISK
41 - PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITY
42 - WOMEN'S ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE
43 - INSURANCE TAX PROCEDURES ACT
44 - UNAUTHORIZED INSURERS ACT
45 - ETHICS AND FAIRNESS IN INSURE
46 - THIRD-PARTY ADMINISTRATOR ACT
46A - PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYER ORGANI
47 - INTERSTATE INSURANCE PRODUCT
48 - MODEL HEALTH PLAN FOR UNINSUR
49 - FLOOD INSURANCE
50 - PATIENT PROTECTION AND TRANSP
51 - PHARMACY AUDIT INTEGRITY ACT
ARTICLE 16H. REVIEW OF ADVERSE DETERMINATIONS.
As used in this article:
(1) "Adverse determination" means a determination by a health carrier or its designee utilization review organization that an admission, availability of care, continued stay or other healthcare service that is a covered benefit has been reviewed and, based upon the information provided, does not meet the health carrier's requirements for medical necessity, appropriateness, health care setting, level of care or effectiveness, and the requested service or payment for the service is therefore denied, reduced or terminated.
(2) "External review" means a review of a final adverse determination by an independent review organization.
(3) "Final adverse determination" means an adverse determination that has been upheld by the issuer at the completion of the internal grievance procedures or an adverse determination with respect to which the internal grievance procedures have been deemed exhausted.
(4) "Health benefit plan" means a policy, contract, certificate or agreement entered into, offered or issued by an issuer to provide, deliver, arrange for, pay for, or reimburse any of the costs of health care services, including short-term and catastrophic health insurance policies and policies that pay on a cost-incurred basis, but excludes the excepted benefits defined in 42 U. S. C. §300gg-91 and policies, contracts, certificates or agreements excluded by rules promulgated pursuant to section four of this article.
(5) "Health plan issuer" or "issuer" means an entity required to be licensed under this chapter that contracts, or offers to contract to provide, deliver, arrange for, pay for, or reimburse any of the costs of health care services under a health benefit plan, including an accident and sickness insurance company, a health maintenance corporation, a health care corporation, a health or hospital service corporation, and a fraternal benefit society.
(6) "Independent review organization" means an entity approved by the commissioner to conduct external reviews of final adverse determinations.
(7) "Utilization review" means a system for the evaluation of the necessity, appropriateness and efficiency of the use of health care services, procedure and facilities.
An issuer shall, in accordance with rules promulgated pursuant to section four of this article, develop processes for utilization review and internal grievance procedures and shall make external review available with respect to all adverse determinations.
(a) An individual or issuer may seek judicial review of a final decision rendered by an independent review organization by filing a petition in the circuit court within sixty days after receipt of notice of such decision.
(1) Venue for a petition filed pursuant to this section is the county in which the individual resides or, if the individual is a non-resident, the county in which he or she works or, if he or she does not work in this state, the county in which his or her employer is located, or if none of these counties are applicable, in Kanawha County.
(2) The issuer shall provide benefits pursuant to the final external review decision, including by making payment on a disputed claim, unless or until there is a judicial decision otherwise.
(3) If the issuer files a petition pursuant to this section and the individual substantially prevails, the issuer shall be responsible for the reasonable attorney's fees of the individual.
(b) A decision issued by an independent review organization pursuant to this article may be enforced in the same manner as an order of the commissioner.
(c) This article does not create any new cause of action or eliminate any presently existing cause of action.
(a) The commissioner shall propose legislative rules for approval by the Legislature in accordance with the provisions of article three, chapter twenty-nine-a of this code to implement the provisions of this article, including, but not limited to, rules to:
(1) Define the scope of the applicability of this article;
(2) Establish requirements for all issuers with regard to utilization review and for internal grievance procedures and external review of adverse determinations, which rules shall be based on the corresponding model acts adopted by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners and, with respect to external review, shall meet or exceed the minimum consumer protections established by the federal Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111-148), as amended by the federal Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-152); and
(3) Provide for judicial review pursuant to subsection (a), section three of this article, which rules shall be based on the provisions of this code and rules governing judicial review of contested cases under the State Administrative Procedures Act.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of section one, article twenty-three of this chapter; section four, article twenty-four of this chapter; section six, article twenty-five of this chapter; and section twenty-four, article twenty-five-a of this chapter, this article and the rules promulgated under this article are applicable to all health benefits plans and supersede any provisions to the contrary in this chapter or in any rules promulgated under this chapter.