West Virginia Code
Unless otherwise expressly provided, or manifestly inconsistent with the intention of the Legislature, every fine or forfeiture imposed by or under an act of the Legislature shall be and accrue to the state for the support of the free schools, and shall be applied to such purpose pursuant to the fifth section of article XII of the Constitution.
Although a law may allow an informer or person prosecuting to have part of a fine, the whole thereof shall go to the state for the support of the free schools, unless the name of such informer or prosecutor be indorsed on or written at the foot of the presentment at the time it is made, or of the indictment before it is presented to the grand jury, or of the writ issued in the action, or the warrant, or the notice of the motion, before the service of such writ, warrant or notice.
Where fine and imprisonment, or fine and any punishment is imposed by law, the proceeding shall be by indictment or presentment in the circuit court, or other court of record having jurisdiction in criminal cases, in the county wherein the offense was committed, unless otherwise specially provided.
Where a fine alone is imposed, if it be in a case mentioned in section one, article eighteen, chapter fifty of this code, it may be recovered upon warrant of a justice having jurisdiction; and whether so mentioned or not, it may be recovered by presentment or indictment in the circuit court, or other court of record having jurisdiction in criminal cases, in the county wherein the offense was committed.
The proceedings in all cases shall be in the name of the state, unless otherwise specially provided. If before a justice, the proceedings shall be according to article eighteen, chapter fifty of this code.
Fines may be remitted by the Governor, subject to the provisions of sections sixteen and seventeen, article one, chapter five of this code.
No court shall remit any fine except for contempt, which the court during the same term may remit either wholly or in part. This section shall not impair the judicial power of the court to set aside a verdict or judgment, or to grant a new trial.
It shall be the duty of the prosecuting attorney of every county to institute and prosecute in the circuit court, or other court having jurisdiction thereof, as the case may be, proper proceedings for the recovery of all fines imposed by law, where the cases are cognizable in such court. He shall superintend the issuing of executions on judgments for fines rendered by such courts, and cause all delinquencies in relation to the service or return of such executions to be duly prosecuted. If judgment be rendered by the circuit or other court for a fine, whether with or without imprisonment, a docket fee of $10 for the prosecuting attorney's services, but payable into the county treasury, shall be taxed in the costs against the offender.
When a judgment for fine and costs is rendered by a circuit court, or other court of record having jurisdiction in criminal cases, the court may order a capias pro fine to be issued thereon at any time during the term at which the judgment is rendered, and if not such order be made, such capias shall be issued by the clerk of the court in vacation if he be ordered to do so by the prosecuting attorney. If the judgment of the court in such case be that the defendant be imprisoned and fined, or that he be fined and imprisoned until the fine and costs be paid, or if the defendant be imprisoned by virtue of such capias pro fine, in either event, the defendant may be released from such imprisonment, where he is detained for a failure to pay such fine and costs, only upon his giving bond with good security before the court, or before the clerk thereof in vacation, or before the sheriff of the county in which such judgment is rendered, payable to the State of West Virginia, for the payment of such fine and costs, at a time not exceeding twelve months after the date of such bond. If default be made in the payment of such bond, the same may be proceeded against to judgment and execution as if it were a forthcoming bond.
Any person imprisoned for the purposes stated in the preceding section may be discharged from confinement at any time by the court wherein he was sentenced, and in no event shall his confinement, for failure to pay a fine and costs, exceed the term of six months. Any person confined in prison who is required to perform labor under the provisions of article fifteen, chapter seventeen of this code, shall be allowed, as a credit upon the fine and costs for which he is liable, the sum of $1.50 a day for each day he has so labored, and when the amount of such credits equals the amount of the fine and costs he shall be discharged from custody.
On every judgment for a fine rendered by a circuit court, or other court of record having jurisdiction in criminal cases, if no special order be made by the court or judge, the clerk of the court shall issue a writ of fieri facias immediately after the term at which such judgment was rendered. And unless paid in court, a payment to any person other than the officer who holds the execution shall not discharge the judgment.
Acts, 1995 Reg. Sess., Ch. 83.
Acts, 1995 Reg. Sess., Ch. 83.
Acts, 1995 Reg. Sess., Ch. 83.
No prosecution by warrant for the recovery of a fine shall be commenced, unless it be done within one year after there was cause therefor, except in cases where a different limitation is prescribed by law.
(a) Notwithstanding any provision of this code to the contrary, a municipal judge may substitute in lieu of the imposition of a sentence of incarceration or imposition of a fine, substitute community service work for such incarceration or fine. Where community service work is ordered as a substitute on a sentence of incarceration an eight hour work day shall extinguish one day of any sentence of incarceration. The minimum wage established by the prevailing federal minimum wage in effect at the time of sentencing is imposed shall be used to compute the amount of community service work necessary to extinguish the fine. In the discretion of the court, the sentence credits may run concurrently or consecutively.
(b) Any community service ordered pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be performed for government entities or charitable or nonprofit entities and be supervised by the chief of police of the municipality or his or her designee.
(c) Persons sentenced under the provisions of this section remain under the jurisdiction of the municipal court. The court may withdraw the community service sentence at any time by order entered with or without notice and order a person previously sentenced to community service to serve the term of incarceration or to pay the fine available to the court upon the person's conviction: Provided, That any community service work performed before the community service sentence is withdrawn shall be credited against any term of incarceration or fine imposed.
(a) If costs, fines, forfeitures, penalties or restitution imposed by the circuit court upon conviction of a person for any criminal offense under this code are not paid in full when ordered to do so by the court, the circuit clerk shall notify the Division of Motor Vehicles of such failure to pay: Provided, That at the time the judgment is imposed, the court shall provide the person with written notice that failure to pay the same when ordered to do so shall result in the suspension of such person's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle in this state and that such suspension could result in the cancellation of, the failure to renew or the failure to issue an automobile insurance policy providing coverage for such person or such person's family: Provided, however, That the failure of the court to provide such notice shall not affect the validity of any suspension of such person's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle in this state. For purposes of this section, such period of time within which the person is required to pay shall be stayed during any period an appeal from the conviction which resulted in the imposition of such costs, fines, forfeitures or penalties is pending.
Upon such notice, the Division of Motor Vehicles shall suspend the person's driver's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle in this state until such time that the costs, fines, forfeitures or penalties are paid.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section to the contrary, the notice of the failure to pay such costs, fines, forfeitures or penalties shall not be given where the circuit court, upon application of the person upon whom the same were imposed filed prior to the expiration of the period within which the same are required to be paid, enters an order finding that such person is financially unable to pay all or a portion of the same: Provided, That where the circuit court, upon finding that the person is financially unable to pay the full amount thereof, requires the person to pay the remaining portion thereof, the circuit clerk shall notify the Division of Motor Vehicles of such person's failure to pay the same if the same is not paid within the period of time ordered by such court.
(c) If a person charged with a criminal offense fails to appear or otherwise respond in court after having received notice to do so, the court shall notify the Division of Motor Vehicles thereof within fifteen days of the scheduled date to appear unless such person sooner appears or otherwise responds in court to the satisfaction of the court. Upon such notice, the Division of Motor Vehicles shall suspend the person's driver's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle in this state until such time that the person appears as required.