West Virginia Code
1 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
2 - INCORPORATION
3 - PURPOSES AND POWERS
4 - NAME
5 - OFFICE AND AGENT
6 - SHARES AND DISTRIBUTIONS
7 - SHAREHOLDERS
8 - DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS
9 - [RESERVED]
10 - AMENDMENT OF S OF INCORPORATI
31 D- 10 -1001
31 D- 10 -1002
31 D- 10 -1003
31 D- 10 -1004
31 D- 10 -1005
31 D- 10 -1006
31 D- 10 -1007
31 D- 10 -1008
31 D- 10 -1009
31 D- 10 -1020
31 D- 10 -1021
11 - MERGERS AND SHARE EXCHANGES
12 - DISPOSITION OF ASSETS
13 - APPRAISAL RIGHTS
14 - DISSOLUTION
15 - FOREIGN CORPORATIONS
16 - RECORDS AND REPORTS
17 - TRANSITION PROVISIONS
CHAPTER 31D. WEST VIRGINIA BUSINESS CORPORATION ACT.
ARTICLE 10. AMENDMENT OF ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS.
§31D-10-1001. Authority to amend.
(a) A corporation may amend its articles of incorporation at any time to add or change a provision that is required or permitted in the articles of incorporation or to delete a provision not required in the articles of incorporation. Whether a provision is required or permitted in the articles of incorporation is determined as of the effective date of the amendment.
(b) A shareholder of the corporation does not have a vested property right resulting from any provision in the articles of incorporation, including provisions relating to management, control, capital structure, dividend entitlement or purpose or duration of the corporation.
If a corporation has not yet issued shares, its board of directors, or its incorporators if it has no board of directors, may adopt one or more amendments to the corporation's articles of incorporation.
If a corporation has issued shares, an amendment to the articles of incorporation must be adopted in the following manner:
(1) The proposed amendment must be adopted by the board of directors.
(2) Except as provided in sections one thousand five, one thousand seven and one thousand eight of this article, after adopting the proposed amendment the board of directors must submit the amendment to the shareholders for their approval. The board of directors must also transmit to the shareholders a recommendation that the shareholders approve the amendment, unless the board of directors makes a determination that because of conflicts of interest or other special circumstances it should not make the recommendation, in which case the board of directors must transmit to the shareholders the basis for that determination.
(3) The board of directors may condition its submission of the amendment to the shareholders on any basis.
(4) If the amendment is required to be approved by the shareholders and the approval is to be given at a meeting, the corporation must notify each shareholder, whether or not entitled to vote, of the meeting of shareholders at which the amendment is to be submitted for approval. The notice must state that the purpose, or one of the purposes, of the meeting is to consider the amendment and must contain or be accompanied by a copy of the amendment.
(5) Unless the articles of incorporation, or the board of directors acting pursuant to subdivision (3) of this section, requires a greater vote or a greater number of shares to be present, approval of the amendment requires the approval of the shareholders at a meeting at which a quorum consisting of at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the amendment exists and, if any class or series of shares is entitled to vote as a separate group on the amendment, except as provided in subsection (c), section one thousand four of this article, the approval of each separate voting group at a meeting at which a quorum of the voting group consisting of at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the amendment by that voting group exists.
(a) If a corporation has more than one class of shares outstanding, the holders of the outstanding shares of a class are entitled to vote as a separate voting group, if shareholder voting is otherwise required by this chapter, on a proposed amendment to the articles of incorporation if the amendment would:
(1) Effect an exchange or reclassification of all or part of the shares of the class into shares of another class;
(2) Effect an exchange or reclassification, or create the right of exchange, of all or part of the shares of another class into shares of the class;
(3) Change the rights, preferences or limitations of all or part of the shares of the class;
(4) Change the shares of all or part of the class into a different number of shares of the same class;
(5) Create a new class of shares having rights or preferences with respect to distributions or to dissolution that are prior or superior to the shares of the class;
(6) Increase the rights, preferences or number of authorized shares of any class that, after giving effect to the amendment, have rights or preferences with respect to distributions or to dissolution that are prior or superior to the shares of the class;
(7) Limit or deny an existing preemptive right of all or part of the shares of the class; or
(8) Cancel or otherwise affect rights to distributions that have accumulated but not yet been authorized on all or part of the shares of the class.
(b) If a proposed amendment would affect a series of a class of shares in one or more of the ways described in subsection (a) of this section, the holders of shares of that series are entitled to vote as a separate voting group on the proposed amendment.
(c) If a proposed amendment that entitles the holders of two or more classes or series of shares to vote as separate voting groups under this section would affect those two or more classes or series in the same or a substantially similar way, the holders of shares of all the classes or series affected by the proposed amendment must vote together as a single voting group on the proposed amendment, unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or required by the board of directors.
(d) A class or series of shares is entitled to the voting rights granted by this section although the articles of incorporation provide that the shares are nonvoting shares.
Unless the articles of incorporation provide otherwise, a corporation's board of directors may adopt amendments to the corporation's articles of incorporation without shareholder approval:
(1) To extend the duration of the corporation if it was incorporated at a time when limited duration was required by law;
(2) To delete the names and addresses of the initial directors;
(3) To delete the name and address of the initial registered agent or registered office, if any, if a statement of change is on file with the Secretary of State;
(4) If the corporation has only one class of shares outstanding:
(A) To change each issued and unissued authorized share of the class into a greater number of whole shares of that class; or
(B) To increase the number of authorized shares of the class to the extent necessary to permit the issuance of shares as a share dividend;
(5) To change the corporate name by substituting the word "corporation", "incorporated", "company", "limited" or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co." or "ltd." for a similar word or abbreviation in the name, or by adding, deleting or changing a geographical attribution for the name;
(6) To reflect a reduction in authorized shares, as a result of the operation of subsection (b), section six hundred thirty-one, article six of this chapter, when the corporation has acquired its own shares and the articles of incorporation prohibit the reissue of the acquired shares;
(7) To delete a class of shares from the articles of incorporation, as a result of the operation of subsection (b), section six hundred thirty-one, article six of this chapter, when there are no remaining shares of the class because the corporation has acquired all shares of the class and the articles of incorporation prohibit the reissue of the acquired shares; or
(8) To make any change expressly permitted by subsection (d), section six hundred two, article six of this chapter to be made without shareholder approval.
After an amendment to the articles of incorporation has been adopted and approved in the manner required by this chapter and by the articles of incorporation, the corporation shall deliver to the Secretary of State, for filing, articles of amendment, setting forth:
(1) The name of the corporation;
(2) The text of each amendment adopted;
(3) If an amendment provides for an exchange, reclassification or cancellation of issued shares, provisions for implementing the amendment if not contained in the amendment itself;
(4) The date of each amendment's adoption; and
(5) If an amendment:
(A) Was adopted by the incorporators or board of directors without shareholder approval, a statement that the amendment was duly approved by the incorporators or by the board of directors, as required, and that shareholder approval was not required;
(B) Required approval by the shareholders, a statement that the amendment was duly approved by the shareholders in the manner required by this chapter and by the articles of incorporation.
(a) A corporation's board of directors may restate its articles of incorporation at any time, with or without shareholder approval, to consolidate all amendments into a single document.
(b) If the restated articles include one or more new amendments that require shareholder approval, the amendments must be adopted and approved as provided in section one thousand three of this article.
(c) A corporation that restates its articles of incorporation shall deliver to the Secretary of State for filing articles of restatement setting forth the name of the corporation and the text of the restated articles of incorporation together with a certificate which states that the restated articles consolidate all amendments into a single document and, if a new amendment is included in the restated articles, which also includes the statements required under section one thousand six of this article.
(d) Duly adopted restated articles of incorporation supersede the original articles of incorporation and all amendments to it.
(e) The Secretary of State may certify restated articles of incorporation as the articles of incorporation currently in effect, without including the certificate information required by subsection (c) of this section.
(a) A corporation's articles of incorporation may be amended without action by the board of directors or shareholders to carry out a plan of reorganization ordered or decreed by a court of competent jurisdiction under the authority of federal law.
(b) The individual or individuals designated by the court shall deliver to the Secretary of State for filing articles of amendment setting forth:
(1) The name of the corporation;
(2) The text of each amendment approved by the court;
(3) The date of the court's order or decree approving the articles of amendment;
(4) The title of the reorganization proceeding in which the order or decree was entered; and
(5) A statement that the court had jurisdiction of the proceeding under federal law.
(c) This section does not apply after entry of a final decree in the reorganization proceeding even though the court retains jurisdiction of the proceeding for limited purposes unrelated to consummation of the reorganization plan.
An amendment to the articles of incorporation does not affect a cause of action existing against or in favor of the corporation, a proceeding to which the corporation is a party or the existing rights of persons other than shareholders of the corporation. An amendment changing a corporation's name does not abate a proceeding brought by or against the corporation in its former name.
§31D-10-1020. Amendment by board of directors or shareholders.
(a) A corporation's shareholders may amend or repeal the corporation's bylaws.
(b) A corporation's board of directors may amend or repeal the corporation's bylaws, unless:
(1) The articles of incorporation or section one thousand twenty-one of this article reserve that power exclusively to the shareholders, in whole or in part; or
(2) The shareholders in amending, repealing or adopting a bylaw expressly provide that the board of directors may not amend, repeal or reinstate that bylaw.
(a) A bylaw that increases a quorum or voting requirement for the board of directors may be amended or repealed:
(1) If adopted by the shareholders, only by the shareholders, unless the bylaw otherwise provides; or
(2) If adopted by the board of directors, either by the shareholders or by the board of directors.
(b) A bylaw adopted or amended by the shareholders that increases a quorum or voting requirement for the board of directors may provide that it can be amended or repealed only by a specified vote of either the shareholders or the board of directors.
(c) Action by the board of directors under subsection (a) of this section to amend or repeal a bylaw that changes the quorum or voting requirement for the board of directors must meet the same quorum requirement and be adopted by the same vote required to take action under the quorum and voting requirement then in effect or proposed to be adopted, whichever is greater.