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Chapter 55     Entire Code


ARTICLE 1. STATUTE OF FRAUDS.

ARTICLE 2. LIMITATION OF ACTIONS AND SUITS.

ARTICLE 2A. LIMITATION ON FOREIGN CLAIMS.

ARTICLE 3. UNLAWFUL ENTRY OR DETAINER.

ARTICLE 3A. REMEDIES FOR WRONGFUL OCCUPATION OF RESIDENTIAL RENTAL PROPERTY.

ARTICLE 3B. REMEDIES FOR WRONGFUL OCCUPATION OF FACTORY-BUILT HOME SITE.

ARTICLE 4. EJECTMENT.

ARTICLE 5. ALLOWANCE FOR IMPROVEMENTS.

ARTICLE 6. RECOVERY OF PERSONAL PROPERTY.

ARTICLE 7. ACTIONS FOR INJURIES.

ARTICLE 7A. LIABILITY OF PARENTS.

ARTICLE 7B. MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY.

ARTICLE 7C. IMMUNITY FROM CIVIL LIABILITY FOR QUALIFIED DIRECTORS OF CERTAIN GOVERNMENTAL AND NONPROFIT ENTITIES.

ARTICLE 7D. GOOD SAMARITAN FOOD DONATION ACT.

ARTICLE 7E. DUTY TO MITIGATE DAMAGES IN EMPLOYMENT CLAIMS.

ARTICLE 7F. ASBESTOS BANKRUPTCY TRUST CLAIMS TRANSPARENCY ACT.

ARTICLE 7G. ASBESTOS AND SILICA CLAIMS PRIORITIES ACT.

ARTICLE 7H. IMMUNITY FROM CIVIL LIABILITY FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE PLANS AND PERSONNEL ASSOCIATED WITH MEDICAL AND DENTAL SCHOOLS.

ARTICLE 7I. SUCCESSOR ASBESTOS-RELATED LIABILITY.

ARTICLE 7K. IMMUNITY FROM CIVIL LIABILITY FOR BEHAVIORAL HEALTH FACILITIES AND RESIDENTIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES.

ARTICLE 8. ACTIONS ON CONTRACTS.

ARTICLE 9. GAMING CONTRACTS.

ARTICLE 10. ARBITRATION.

ARTICLE 11. LIS PENDENS.

ARTICLE 12. JUDICIAL SALES.

ARTICLE 12A. LEASE AND CONVEYANCE OF MINERAL INTERESTS OWNED BY MISSING OR UNKNOWN OWNERS OR ABANDONING OWNERS.

ARTICLE 13. UNIFORM DECLARATORY JUDGMENTS ACT.

ARTICLE 14. UNIFORM ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN JUDGMENTS ACT.

ARTICLE 15. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION COMMISSION.

ARTICLE 16. CIVIL REMEDY FOR WORTHLESS CHECK.

ARTICLE 17. PROCEDURES FOR CERTAIN ACTIONS AGAINST THE STATE.

ARTICLE 18. LIMITATIONS OF ACTIONS REGARDING FIREARMS MANUFACTURE AND SALE.

ARTICLE 7J. FINANCIAL EXPLOITATION OF AN ELDERLY PERSON, PROTECTED PERSON OR INCAPACITATED ADULT.

§55-7J-1. Action for financial exploitation of an elderly person, protected person or incapacitated adult; definitions.

(a) Any elderly person, protected person, or incapacitated adult against whom an act of financial exploitation has been committed may bring an action under this article against any person who has committed an act of financial exploitation against him or her.

(b) For the purposes of this article:

(1) "Incapacitated adult" has the same meaning as prescribed under §61-2-29 of this code;

(2) "Elderly person" means a person who is 65 years or older;

(3) "Financial exploitation" or "financially exploit" means the intentional misappropriation or misuse of funds or assets or the diminishment of assets due to undue influence of an elderly person, protected person, or incapacitated adult, but may not apply to a transaction or disposition of funds or assets where the defendant made a good-faith effort to assist the elderly person, protected person, or incapacitated adult with the management of his or her money or other things of value; and

(4) "Protected person" means any person who is defined as a "protected person" in §44A-1-4 of this code and who is subject to the protections of §44A-1-1 et seq. or §44C-1-1 et seq. of this code.

(c) Any person who believes that an elderly person, protected person, or incapacitated adult is suffering financial exploitation due to the intentional misappropriation or misuse of funds or undue influence may bring an action for a protective order pursuant to this section in the magistrate court or circuit court in the county in which the elderly person, protected person, or incapacitated adult resides: Provided, That an action for relief brought in the magistrate court of the county of residence of the elderly person, protected person, or incapacitated adult believed to be the victim of financial exploitation to stay further diminution of the persons assets shall be temporary in nature.

(d) An action under this section is commenced by the filing of a verified petition. Temporary relief may be granted without notice to the person alleged to be engaging in financial exploitation and without that person being present.

(e) If a magistrate court grants the petition and issues a temporary protective order, the magistrate court shall immediately transfer the matter to the circuit court of the county in which the petition was filed. Upon receipt of the notice of transfer from the magistrate court, the circuit court shall set the matter for a review hearing within 20 days. After a hearing, the circuit court may issue a permanent protective order containing any relief the circuit court determines necessary to protect the alleged victim if the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that:

(1) The respondent has committed an act against the victim that constitutes financial exploitation; and

 (2) There is reasonable cause to believe continued financial exploitation will occur unless relief is granted; or

(3) The respondent consents to entry of the permanent protective order.

§55-7J-2. Restriction of defenses, standing alone, based on legal relationship.

Notwithstanding any provision of this code to the contrary, acting in a position of trust and confidence, including, but not limited to, as guardian, conservator, trustee or attorney for or holding power of attorney for an elderly person, protected person or incapacitated adult shall not, standing alone, constitute a defense to an action brought under this article.

§55-7J-3. Court authorized remedies.

(a) In an action brought against a person under this article upon a finding that an elderly person, protected person or incapacitated adult has been financially exploited, the court may order:

(1) The return of property or assets improperly obtained, controlled or used; and

(2) An award of actual damages to the person who brought the action for any damages incurred or for the value of the property or assets lost as a result of the violation or violations of this article.

(b) In addition to the remedies provided in subsection (a) of this section, a court may order the following:

(1) For violations committed by a person who is not in a position of trust and confidence, payment of two times the amount of damages incurred or value of property or assets lost; and

(2) For violations committed by a person in a position of trust and confidence, payment of treble damages.

§55-7J-4. Attorneys’ fees; court costs and burden of proof; statute of limitations.

(a) The court may award reasonable attorneys’ fees and costs to a person that brings an action under this section and prevails.

(b) The standard of proof in proving that a person committed financial exploitation in an action pursuant to this article is a preponderance of the evidence.

(c) An action under this article shall be brought within two years from the date of the violation or from the date of discovery, whichever is later in time.

§55-7J-5. Action to freeze assets; burden of proof; options the court may exercise.

(a) An elderly person, protected person or incapacitated adult may bring an action to enjoin the alleged commission of financial exploitation and may petition the court to freeze the assets of the person allegedly committing the financial exploitation in an amount equal to, but not greater than, the alleged value of lost property or assets for purposes of restoring to the victim the value of the lost property or assets. The burden of proof required to freeze the assets of a person allegedly committing financial exploitation shall be a preponderance of the evidence. Upon a finding that the elderly person, protected person or incapacitated adult has been formally exploited, the court may:

(1) Grant injunctive relief;

(2) Order the violator to, in escrow an amount of money equivalent to the value of the misappropriated assets for distribution to the aggrieved elderly person, protected person or incapacitated adult;

(3) Order the violator to return to the elderly person, protected person or incapacitated person any real or personal property which was misappropriated; or

(4) Provide for the appointment of a receiver;

(b) In an action under section one of this article, the court may void or limit the application of contracts or clauses resulting from the financial exploitation.

(c) In an action brought under this article, upon the filing of the complaint or on the appearance of any defendant, claimant or other party, or at any later time, the court may require the plaintiff, defendant, claimant or other party or parties to post security, or additional security, in a sum the court directs to pay all costs, expenses and disbursements that are awarded against that party or that the party may be directed to pay by any interlocutory order, by the final judgment or after appeal.

§55-7J-6. Penalty for violation of injunction; retention of jurisdiction.

Any person who violates the terms of an order issued under section five of this article shall be subject to proceeding for contempt of court. The court issuing the injunction may retain jurisdiction if, in its discretion, it determines that to do so is in the best interest of the elderly person, protected person or incapacitated adult. Whenever the court determines that an injunction issued under section five of this article has been violated, the court may award reasonable costs to the party asserting that a violation has occurred.

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