As used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires a different meaning, the term:
(1) "Articles of incorporation" includes, but is not limited to, amended and restated articles of incorporation and articles of merger.
(2) "Authorized shares" means the shares of all classes a domestic or foreign corporation is authorized to issue.
(3) "Board" or "board of directors" means the group of persons vested with management of the affairs of the corporation irrespective of the name by which the group is designated.
(4) "Business corporation" means a corporation with capital stock or shares incorporated for profit.
(5) "Conspicuous" means written so that a reasonable person against whom the writing is to operate should have noticed, including, but not limited to, printing in italics or boldface or contrasting color, or typing in capitals or underlined.
(6) "Corporation" or "domestic corporation" means a corporation without capital stock or shares, which is not a foreign corporation, incorporated under the laws of this state: Provided, That "corporation" or "domestic corporation" does not include towns, cities, boroughs or any municipal corporation or any department or any town, city, borough or municipal corporation.
(7) "Deliver" or "delivery" means any method of delivery used in conventional commercial practice, including, but not limited to, delivery by hand, mail, commercial delivery and electronic transmission.
(8) "Distribution" means a direct or indirect transfer of money or other property or incurrence of indebtedness by a corporation to or for the benefit of its members in respect of any of its membership interests or to or for the benefit of its officers or directors: Provided, That the payment of reasonable compensation for services rendered, the reimbursement of reasonable expenses, the granting of benefits to members in conformity with the corporation's nonprofit purposes and the making of distributions upon dissolution or final liquidation as provided by article thirteen of this chapter may not be deemed a distribution.
(9) "Effective date of notice" means the date as determined pursuant to section one hundred fifty-one of this article.
(10) "Electronic transmission" or "electronically transmitted" means any process of communication not directly involving the physical transfer of paper that is suitable for the retention, retrieval and reproduction of information by the recipient.
(11) "Employee" includes an officer and may include a director: Provided, That the director has accepted duties that make him or her also an employee.
(12) "Entity" includes corporation and foreign corporations; business corporations and foreign business corporations; profit and nonprofit unincorporated associations; limited liability companies and foreign limited liability companies; business trusts, estates, partnerships, trusts and two or more persons having a joint or common economic interest; and state, United States and foreign government.
(13) "Foreign corporation" means any nonprofit corporation which is incorporated under a law other than the laws of this state.
(14) "Governmental subdivision" includes, but is not limited to, authorities, counties, districts and municipalities.
(15) "Individual" includes, but is not limited to, the estate of an incompetent or deceased individual.
(16) "Member" means a person having membership rights in a corporation in accordance with the provisions of its certificate of incorporation or bylaws.
(17) "Nonprofit corporation" means a corporation which may not make distributions to its members, directors or officers.
(18) "Person" includes, but is not limited to, an individual and an entity.
(19) "Principal office" means the office so designated in the return required pursuant to section three, article twelve-c, chapter eleven of this code, where the principal executive offices of a domestic or foreign corporation are located.
(20) "Proceeding" includes, but is not limited to, civil suits and criminal, administrative and investigatory actions.
(21) "Record date" means the date established under article six or seven of this chapter on which a corporation determines the identity of its members and their interests. The determinations are to be made as of the close of business on the record date unless another time for doing so is specified when the record date is fixed.
(22) "Registered agent" means the agent identified by the corporation pursuant to section five hundred one, article five of this chapter.
(23) "Registered office" means the address of the registered agent for the corporation, as provided in section five hundred one, article five of this chapter.
(24) "Secretary" means the corporate officer to whom the board of directors has delegated responsibility under subsection (c), section eight hundred forty, article eight of this chapter for custody of the minutes of the meetings of the board of directors and the meetings of the members and for authenticating records of the corporation.
(25) "Sign" or "signature" includes, but is not limited to, any manual, facsimile, conformed or electronic signature with means to identify a record by a signature, mark or other symbol, with intent to authenticate it.
(26) "State", when referring to a part of the United States, includes a state, commonwealth and a territory and insular possession of the United States and their agencies and governmental subdivisions.
(27) "United States" includes, but is not limited to, districts, authorities, bureaus, commissions, departments and any other agency of the United States.