West Virginia Code
Corporations may be organized under this chapter for any lawful purpose, including any one or more of the following purposes: Charitable, benevolent, eleemosynary, educational, civic, patriotic, political, religious, social, fraternal, literary, cultural, athletic, scientific, agricultural, horticultural, animal husbandry, and professional commercial, industrial or trade association.
Unless its articles of incorporation provide otherwise, every corporation has perpetual duration and succession in its corporate name and has the same powers as an individual to do all things necessary or convenient to carry out its business and affairs, including without limitation, power:
(1) To sue and be sued, complain and defend in its corporate name;
(2) To have a corporate seal, which may be altered at will, and to use it, or a facsimile of it, by impressing or affixing it or in any other manner reproducing it;
(3) To make and amend bylaws, not inconsistent with its articles of incorporation or with the laws of this state, for managing and regulating the affairs of the corporation;
(4) To purchase, receive, lease, or otherwise acquire, and own, hold, improve, use, and otherwise deal with, real or personal property, or any legal or equitable interest in property, wherever located;
(5) To sell, convey, mortgage, pledge, lease, exchange, and otherwise dispose of all or any part of its property;
(6) To purchase, receive, subscribe for, or otherwise acquire; own, hold, vote, use, sell, mortgage, lend, pledge, or otherwise dispose of; and deal in and with shares or other interests in, or obligations of, any other entity;
(7) To make contracts and guarantees; incur liabilities; borrow money; issue its notes, bonds, and other obligations, which may be convertible into or include the option to purchase other securities of the corporation; and secure any of its obligations by mortgage, deed of trust, or pledge of any of its property, franchises, or income;
(8) To lend money, invest and reinvest its funds, and receive and hold real and personal property as security for repayment;
(9) To be a promoter, partner, member, associate, or manager of any partnership, joint venture, trust, or other entity;
(10) To conduct its activities, locate offices, and exercise the powers granted by this chapter within or without this state;
(11) To elect directors and appoint officers, employees, and agents of the corporation, define their duties, and fix their compensation;
(12) To pay pensions and establish pension plans, pension trusts, profit sharing plans, share bonus plans, share option plans, and benefit or incentive plans for any or all of its current or former directors, officers, employees, and agents;
(13) To make donations for the public welfare or for charitable, scientific, or educational purposes, and for other purposes that further the corporate interest;
(14) To transact any lawful activity that will aid governmental policy;
(15) To impose or levy fines, penalties, dues, assessments, admission and transfer fees upon its members;
(16) To establish conditions for admission of members, admit members and issue memberships and certificates evidencing membership;
(17) To carry on one or more businesses; and
(18) To make payments or donations, or do any other act, not inconsistent with law, that furthers the affairs of the corporation.
(a) In anticipation of or during an emergency defined in subsection (d) of this section, the board of directors of a corporation may:
(1) Modify lines of succession to accommodate the incapacity of any director, officer, employee, or agent; and
(2) Relocate the principal office, designate alternative principal offices or regional offices, or authorize the officers to do so.
(b) During an emergency defined in subsection (d) of this section, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise:
(1) Notice of a meeting of the board of directors need be given only to those directors whom it is practicable to reach and may be given in any practicable manner, including by publication and radio; and
(2) One or more officers of the corporation present at a meeting of the board of directors may be deemed to be directors for the meeting, in order of rank and within the same rank in order of seniority, as necessary to achieve a quorum.
(c) Corporate action taken in good faith during an emergency under this section to further the ordinary affairs of the corporation:
(1) Binds the corporation; and
(2) May not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.
(d) An emergency exists for purposes of this section if a quorum of the corporation's directors cannot readily be assembled because of some catastrophic event.
(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the validity of corporate action may not be challenged on the ground that the corporation lacks or lacked power to act.
(b) A corporation's power to act may be challenged:
(1) In a proceeding by a member or director against the corporation to enjoin the act;
(2) In a proceeding by the corporation, directly, derivatively, or through a receiver, trustee, or other legal representative, against an incumbent or former director, officer, employee, or agent of the corporation; or
(3) In a proceeding by the Attorney General to dissolve the corporation or to enjoin the corporation from the conduct of unauthorized affairs.
(c) In a member's or director's proceeding under subdivision (1), subsection (b) of this section to enjoin an unauthorized corporate act, the circuit court may enjoin or set aside the act, if equitable and if all affected persons are parties to the proceeding, and may award damages for loss, except loss of anticipated profits, suffered by the corporation or another party because of enjoining the unauthorized act.
(d) The Attorney General may, upon his or her own information or upon complaint of an interested party, bring an action in the name of the state to restrain any person from purporting to have, or exercising, corporate powers not granted.