West Virginia Code
Every person who commits, attempts to commit, conspires to commit, or knowingly aids or abets in the commission of, any act declared herein to be a crime, whether individually or in connection with one or more other persons or as a principal, agent, or accessory, shall be guilty of such offense, and every person who falsely, fraudulently, forcibly, or willfully induces, causes, coerces, requires, permits, or directs another to violate any provision of this chapter is likewise guilty of such offense.
It is unlawful for the owner, or any other person, employing or otherwise directing the driver of any vehicle to require or knowingly to permit the operation of such vehicle upon a highway in any manner contrary to law.
If the owner of a motor vehicle is present in the vehicle at a time when another driver is operating the vehicle upon the highways of this state: (1) With defective or improper equipment in violation of the provisions of article fifteen of this chapter; (2) in violation of the weight, height, length or width provisions of article seventeen of this chapter; (3) with improper registration in violation of the provisions of article three, chapter seventeen-a of this code; or (4) with an expired vehicle inspection decal or certificate in violation of the provisions of article sixteen of this chapter, the owner rather than the driver shall be arrested for any violation enumerated herein in lieu of an arrest of the driver. If the owner of the vehicle is not present therein, then the driver shall be arrested for any violation enumerated in this section.
(a) Whenever any person is arrested for any violation of this chapter punishable as a misdemeanor, the arrested person shall be immediately taken before a magistrate or court within the county in which the offense charged is alleged to have been committed and who has jurisdiction of the offense and is nearest or most accessible with reference to the place where the arrest is made, in any of the following cases:
(1) When a person arrested demands an immediate appearance before a magistrate or court;
(2) When the person is arrested upon a charge of negligent homicide;
(3) When the person is arrested upon a charge of driving while under the influence of alcohol, or under the influence of any controlled substance, or under the influence of any other drug, or under the combined influence of alcohol and any controlled substance or any other drug;
(4) When the person is arrested upon a charge of failure to stop in the event of an accident causing death, personal injury or damage to property;
(5) When the person is arrested upon a charge of violating section fourteen, article seventeen of this chapter relating to weight violations, except as otherwise provided in that section;
(6) When the person arrested is a resident of a state that has not entered into a nonresident violator compact with this state;
(7) In any other event when the person arrested refuses to accept the written notice to appear in court as his or her promise to appear in court or to comply with the terms of the written notice to appear in court as provided in section four of this article; and
(8) When a person is arrested for driving with a suspended or revoked driver's license for miscellaneous reasons. Provided, That when a person is arrested for driving with a suspended or revoked driver's license for miscellaneous reasons, the arresting officer may issue a charge by citation if a magistrate or judge is not on duty or reasonably available.
(b) When the person arrested is a resident of a state that has entered into a nonresident violator compact with this state, the arresting officer shall issue the person a written notice as provided for in section four of this article and may not take the person immediately before a magistrate or court, except under the terms of the compact or under the circumstances set forth in subsection (a) of this section.
(a) Whenever a person is arrested for any violation of this chapter punishable as a misdemeanor and, such person is not immediately taken before a justice or court as hereinbefore required, the arresting officer shall prepare written notice to appear in court containing the name and address of such person, the license number of his vehicle, if any, the offense charged, and the time and place when and where such person shall appear in court.
(b) The time specified in said notice to appear must be at least five days after such arrest unless the person arrested shall demand an earlier hearing.
(c) The place specified in said notice to appear must be before a justice or court within the township or county in which the offense charged is alleged to have been committed and who has jurisdiction of such offense.
(d) The arrested person in order to secure release, as provided in this section, must accept a copy of the written notice prepared by the arresting officer. The officer shall deliver a copy of the notice to the person promising to appear. Thereupon, said officer shall forthwith release the person arrested from custody.
The following provisions of this article shall govern all police officers in making arrests without a warrant for violations of this chapter, but the procedure prescribed herein shall not otherwise be exclusive of any other method prescribed by law for the arrest and prosecution of a person for an offense of like grade.
(a) Every traffic-enforcement agency in this state shall provide in appropriate form approved by the commissioner, the superintendent of the division of public safety and the commissioner of the Division of Highways, traffic citations containing notices to appear which shall be issued in books with citations in quadruplicate and meeting the requirements of this article.
(b) The chief administrative officer of every such traffic-enforcement agency shall be responsible for the issuance of such books and shall maintain a record of every such book and each citation contained therein issued to individual members of the traffic-enforcement agency and shall require and retain a receipt for every book so issued.
(a) Every traffic-enforcement officer upon issuing a traffic citation to an alleged violator of any provision of the motor vehicle laws of this state or of any traffic ordinance of any city or town shall deposit the original or a copy of such traffic citation with a court having jurisdiction over the alleged offense or with its traffic violations bureau.
(b) Upon the deposit of the original or a copy of such traffic citation with a court having jurisdiction over the alleged offense or with its traffic violations bureau as aforesaid, said original or copy of such traffic citation may be disposed of only by trial in said court or other official action by a judge of said court, including forfeiture of the bail or by the deposit of sufficient bail with or payment of a fine to said traffic violations bureau by the person to whom such traffic citation has been issued by the traffic-enforcement officer.
(c) It shall be unlawful and official misconduct for any traffic-enforcement officer or other officer or public employee to dispose of a traffic citation or copies thereof or of the record of the issuance of the same in a manner other than as required herein.
(d) The chief administrative officer of every traffic- enforcement agency shall require the return to him of a copy of every traffic citation issued by an officer under his supervision to an alleged violator of any traffic law or ordinance and of all copies of every traffic citation which has been spoiled or upon which any entry has been made and not issued to an alleged violator.
(e) Such chief administrative officer shall also maintain or cause to be maintained in connection with every traffic citation issued by an officer under his supervision a record of the disposition of the charge by the court or its traffic violations bureau in which the original or copy of the traffic citation was deposited.
Every justice or judge of a court shall keep or cause to be kept a record of every traffic complaint, or other legal form of traffic charge deposited with or presented to said court or its traffic violations bureau, and shall keep a record of every official action by said court or its traffic violations bureau in reference thereto, including but not limited to a record of every conviction, forfeiture of bail, judgment of acquittal, and the amount of fine or forfeiture resulting from every said traffic complaint deposited with or presented to said court or traffic violations bureau.
Justices of the peace shall have concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit, criminal and intermediate courts to enforce the misdemeanor penalties prescribed by this chapter.
Any guaranteed arrest bond certificate of any surety company licensed to do business by the Insurance Commissioner, shall, when presented by the person whose signature appears thereon, be accepted in lieu of cash bail in an amount not to exceed $500, as a bail bond, to guarantee the appearance of such person in any court, or before any justice, mayor, or municipal judge in this state, at such time as may be required by the court, justice, mayor or municipal judge, when such person is arrested for violation of any motor vehicle law of this state or traffic ordinance of any municipality in this state (except for the offenses of reckless driving, driving while intoxicated or for any felony) committed prior to the date of expiration shown on such guaranteed arrest bond certificate: Provided, That any such guaranteed arrest bond certificate so presented as a bail bond in any court in this state shall be subject to the same forfeiture and enforcement provisions as any other bail bond.
The term "guaranteed arrest bond certificate," as used herein, means any printed card or other certificate issued by an automobile club or association to any of its members, which said card or certificate is signed by such member and contains a printed statement that such automobile club or association and a surety company guarantee the appearance of the person whose signature appears on the card or certificate and that they will in the event of failure of said person to appear in court at the time of trial, pay any fine or forfeiture imposed on such person in an amount not to exceed $500.