(a) The education of professional educators in the state is under the general direction and control of the state board.
The education of professional educators in the state includes all programs leading to certification to teach or serve in the public schools. The programs include the following:
(1) Programs in all institutions of higher education, including student teaching and teacher-in-residence programs as provided in this section;
(2) Beginning teacher induction programs;
(3) Granting West Virginia certification to persons who received their preparation to teach outside the boundaries of this state, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section;
(4) Alternative preparation programs in this state leading to certification, including programs established pursuant to the provisions of §18A-3-1a, §18A-3-1b, §18A-3-1c, §18A-3-1d, §18A-3-1e, §18A-3-1f, §18A-3-1g, §18A-3-1h, and §18A-3-1i of this code and programs which are in effect on the effective date of this section; and
(5) Continuing professional education, professional development, and in-service training programs for professional educators employed in the public schools in the state.
(b) The state board shall adopt standards for the education of professional educators in the state and for awarding certificates valid in the public schools of this state. The standards include, but are not limited to, the following:
(1) A provision for the study of the history and philosophical foundations of Western Civilization and the writings of the founders of the United States of America;
(2) A provision for the study of multicultural education. As used in this section, multicultural education means the study of the pluralistic nature of American society including its values, institutions, organizations, groups, status positions, and social roles;
(3) A provision for the study of classroom management techniques, including methods of effective management of disruptive behavior including addressing societal factors and their impact on student behavior; and
(4) A teacher from another state shall be awarded a teaching certificate for a comparable grade level and subject area valid in the public schools of this state, subject to §18A-3-10 of this code if he or she has met the following requirements:
(A) Holds a valid teaching certificate or a certificate of eligibility issued by another state;
(B) Has graduated from an educator preparation program at a regionally accredited institution of higher education or from another educator preparation program;
(C) Possesses the minimum of a bachelor’s degree; and
(D) Meets all of the requirements of the state for full certification except employment.
(c) The state board may enter into an agreement with county boards for the use of the public schools in order to give prospective teachers the teaching experience needed to demonstrate competence as a prerequisite to certification to teach in the West Virginia public schools.
(d) An agreement established pursuant to subsection (c) of this section shall recognize student teaching as a joint responsibility of the educator preparation institution and the cooperating public schools. The agreement shall include the following items:
(1) The minimum qualifications for the employment of public school teachers selected as supervising teachers, including the requirement that field-based and clinical experiences be supervised by a teacher fully certified in the state in which that teacher is supervising;
(2) The remuneration to be paid to public school teachers by the state board, in addition to their contractual salaries, for supervising student teachers;
(3) Minimum standards to guarantee the adequacy of the facilities and program of the public school selected for student teaching;
(4) Assurance that the student teacher, under the direction and supervision of the supervising teacher, shall exercise the authority of a substitute teacher;
(5) A provision requiring any higher education institution with an educator preparation program to document that the student teacher’s field-based and clinical experiences include participation and instruction with multicultural, at-risk, and exceptional children at each programmatic level for which the student teacher seeks certification; and
(6) A provision authorizing a school or school district that has implemented a comprehensive beginning teacher induction program to enter into an agreement that provides for the training and supervision of student teachers consistent with the educational objectives of this subsection by using an alternate structure implemented for the support, supervision, and mentoring of beginning teachers. The agreement is in lieu of any specific provisions of this subsection and is subject to the approval of the state board.
(e) Teacher-in-residence programs. —
(1) In lieu of the provisions of subsections (c) and (d) of this section and subject to approval of the state board, an institution of higher education with a program for the education of professional educators approved by the state board may enter into an agreement with county boards for the use of teacher-in-residence programs in the public schools.
(2) A “teacher-in-residence program” means an intensively supervised and mentored residency program for prospective teachers during their senior year that refines their professional practice skills and helps them gain the teaching experience needed to demonstrate competence as a prerequisite to certification to teach in the West Virginia public schools.
(3) The authorization for the higher education institution and the county board to implement a teacher-in-residence program is subject to state board approval. The provisions of the agreement include, but are not limited to, the following items:
(A) A requirement that the prospective teacher in a teacher-in-residence program has completed all other preparation courses and has passed the appropriate basic skills and subject matter test or tests required by the state board for teachers to become certified in the area for which licensure is sought;
(B) A requirement that the teacher-in-residence serve only in a teaching position in the county which has been posted and for which no other teacher fully certified for the position has been employed;
(C) Specifics regarding the program of instruction for the teacher-in-residence setting forth the responsibilities for supervision and mentoring by the higher education institution’s educator preparation program, the school principal, and peer teachers and mentors, and the responsibilities for the formal instruction or professional development necessary for the teacher-in-residence to perfect his or her professional practice skills. The program also may include other instructional items as considered appropriate;
(D) A requirement that the teacher-in-residence hold a teacher-in-residence permit qualifying the individual to teach in his or her assigned position as the teacher of record;
(E) A requirement that the salary and benefit costs for the position to which the teacher-in-residence is assigned shall be used only for program support and to pay a stipend to the teacher-in-residence as specified in the agreement, subject to the following:
(i) The teacher-in-residence is a student enrolled in the teacher preparation program of the institution of higher education and is not a regularly employed employee of the county board;
(ii) The teacher-in-residence is included on the certified list of employees of the county eligible for state aid funding the same as an employee of the county at the appropriate level based on their permit and level of experience;
(iii) All state aid funding due to the county board for the teacher-in-residence shall be used only in accordance with the agreement with the institution of higher education for support of the program as provided in the agreement, including costs associated with instruction and supervision as set forth in paragraph (C) of this subdivision;
(iv) The teacher-in-residence is provided the same liability insurance coverage as other employees; and
(v) All state aid funding due to the county for the teacher-in-residence and not required for support of the program shall be paid as a stipend to the teacher-in-residence: Provided, That the stipend paid to the teacher-in-residence shall be no less than 65 percent of all state aid funding due the county for the teacher-in-residence;
(F) Other provisions that may be required by the state board.
(f) In lieu of the student teaching experience in a public school setting required by this section, an institution of higher education may provide an alternate student teaching experience in a nonpublic school setting if the institution of higher education meets the following criteria:
(1) Complies with the provisions of this section;
(2) Has a state board-approved educator preparation program; and
(3) Enters into an agreement pursuant to subdivisions (g) and (h) of this section.
(g) At the discretion of the higher education institution, an agreement for an alternate student teaching experience between an institution of higher education and a nonpublic school shall require one of the following:
(1) The student teacher shall complete at least one-half of the clinical experience in a public school; or
(2) The educator preparation program shall include a requirement that any student performing student teaching in a nonpublic school shall complete the following:
(A) At least 200 clock hours of field-based training in a public school; and
(B) A course, which is a component of the institution’s state board-approved educator preparation program, that provides information to prospective teachers equivalent to the teaching experience needed to demonstrate competence as a prerequisite to certification to teach in the public schools in West Virginia. The course also shall include instruction on at least the following elements:
(i) State board policy and provisions of this code governing public education;
(ii) Requirements for federal and state accountability, including the mandatory reporting of child abuse;
(iii) Federal and state mandated curriculum and assessment requirements, including multicultural education, safe schools, and student code of conduct;
(iv) Federal and state regulations for the instruction of exceptional students as defined by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. §1400 et seq.; and
(v) Varied approaches for effective instruction for students who are at-risk.
(h) In addition to the requirements set forth in subsection (g) of this section, an agreement for an alternate student teaching experience between an institution of higher education and a nonpublic school shall include the following:
(1) A requirement that the higher education institution with an educator preparation program shall document that the student teacher’s field-based and clinical experiences include participation and instruction with multicultural, at-risk, and exceptional children at each programmatic level for which the student teacher seeks certification; and
(2) The minimum qualifications for the employment of school teachers selected as supervising teachers, including the requirement that field-based and clinical experiences be supervised by a teacher fully certified in the state in which that teacher is supervising.
(i) The state superintendent may issue certificates as provided in §18A-3-2a of this code to graduates of educator preparation programs and alternative educator preparation programs approved by the state board. The certificates are issued in accordance with this section and rules adopted by the state board.
(1) A certificate to teach may be granted only to a person who meets the following criteria:
(A) Is a citizen of the United States, except as provided in subdivision (2) or (3) of this subsection;
(B) Is of good moral character;
(C) Is physically, mentally, and emotionally qualified to perform the duties of a teacher; and
(D) Is at least 18 years of age on or before October 1 of the year in which his or her certificate is issued.
(2) A permit to teach in the public schools of this state may be granted to a person who is an exchange teacher from a foreign country or an alien person who meets the requirements to teach.
(3) A certificate to teach may be granted to a noncitizen of the United States who holds a valid Permanent Resident Card, Employment Authorization Document (EAD), or work permit issued by the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).
(j) Institutions of higher education approved for educator preparation may cooperate with each other and with one or more county boards to organize and operate centers to provide selected phases of the educator preparation program. The phases include, but are not limited to, the following:
(1) Student teaching and teacher-in-residence programs;
(2) Beginning teacher induction programs;
(3) Instruction in methodology; and
(4) Seminar programs for college students, teachers with provisional certification, professional support team members, and supervising teachers.
By mutual agreement, the institutions of higher education and county boards may budget and expend funds to operate the centers through payments to the appropriate fiscal office of the participating institutions and the county boards.
(k) The provisions of this section do not require discontinuation of an existing student teacher training center or school which meets the standards of the state board.
(l) All institutions of higher education approved for educator preparation in the 1962-63 school year continue to hold that distinction so long as they meet the minimum standards for educator preparation. Nothing in this section infringes upon the rights granted to any institution by charter given according to law previous to the adoption of this code.
(m) Definitions. — For the purposes of this section, the following words have the meanings ascribed to them unless the context clearly indicates a different meaning:
(1) “Nonpublic school” means a private school, parochial school, church school, school operated by a religious order, or other nonpublic school that elects to meet the following conditions:
(A) Comply with the provisions of §18-28-1 et seq. of this code;
(B) Participate on a voluntary basis in a state-operated or state-sponsored program provided to this type school pursuant to this section; and
(C) Comply with the provisions of this section;
(2) “At-risk” means a student who has the potential for academic failure including, but not limited to, the risk of dropping out of school, involvement in delinquent activity, or poverty as indicated by free or reduced lunch status; and
(3) “Exceptional child” or “exceptional children” has the meaning ascribed to these terms pursuant to §18-20-1 of this code but, as used in this section, the terms do not include gifted students.