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Enrolled Version - Final Version Senate Bill 493 History

OTHER VERSIONS  -  Introduced Version  |  Committee Substitute (1)  |     |  Email


WEST virginia legislature

2016 regular session

Enrolled

Committee Substitute

for

Senate Bill 493

By Senator Trump, original sponsor

[Passed March 10, 2016; in effect 90 days from passage]

 

AN ACT to amend the Code of West Virginia, 1931, as amended, by adding thereto three new sections, designated §44D-5-503a, §44D-5-503b and §44D-5-503c; and to amend and reenact §44D-5-505 of said code, all relating to allowing the creation of self-settled spendthrift trusts; permitting a grantor to transfer assets into a qualified self-settled spendthrift trust and retain an interest in that trust; excluding applicability of certain provisions of code to that qualified interest; clarifying applicability of self-settled spendthrift trust provisions when certain interests are not qualified interests; prohibiting inference of intent to delay, hinder or defraud creditors solely based on grantor’s establishment of or transfer to a self-settled spendthrift trust; permitting transfer to trust to be set aside under certain circumstances; providing for the payment of expenses associated with defending the trust to be paid from transfer; permitting creditors to bring actions against transfer of trust assets within four years after date of grantor’s transfer; limiting creditor rights to grantor’s transfer; prohibiting credit claims or causes of action against certain other persons or entities; providing applicability of provisions governing creditor’s actions to avoid transfers to situations involving multiple transfers; setting statute of limitations for self-settled spendthrift trust moved to this state for four years from date assets moved to the state; defining terms; providing for filling of vacancies in office of qualified trustee or independent qualified trustee; permitting certain terms to be included in self-settled spendthrift trust without deeming trust irrevocable; requiring treatment of beneficiary with right to withdraw entire beneficial interest be treated as grantor once right to withdraw has lapsed, been released or otherwise expired; and exempting self-settled spendthrift trusts from being subject to claims of the grantor’s creditors. 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of West Virginia:


That the Code of West Virginia, 1931, as amended, be amended by adding thereto three new sections, designated §44D-5-503a, §44D-5-503b and §44D-5-503c; and that §44D-5-505 of said code be amended and reenacted, all to read as follows:

ARTICLE 5. CREDITOR’S CLAIMS; SPENDTHRIFT AND DISCRETIONARY TRUSTS.

§44D-5-503a.  Self-settled spendthrift trusts.


(a) A grantor may transfer assets to a qualified self-settled spendthrift trust and retain in that trust a qualified interest, and, except as otherwise provided in this article, the provisions of section five hundred five of this article do not apply to such qualified interest.

(b)The provisions of section five hundred five of this article shall continue to apply with respect to any interest held by a grantor in a qualified self-settled spendthrift trust, other than a qualified interest.

(c) A grantor’s transfer to a qualified self-settled spendthrift trust shall not, to the extent of the grantor’s qualified interest, be deemed to have been made with intent to delay, hinder or defraud creditors, for purposes of article one-a, chapter forty of this code, merely because it is made to a trust with respect to which the grantor retains a qualified interest and merely because it is made without consideration. A grantor’s transfer to a qualified self-settled spendthrift trust may, however, be set aside under article one-a, chapter forty of this code or if the qualified affidavit contains a material misstatement of fact: Provided, That any transfer made to a qualified self-settled spendthrift trust which may be set aside under article one-a, chapter forty of this code shall be chargeable first with the entire costs and expenses, including attorney’s fees, properly incurred by the trustee in the defense of the action or proceeding to set aside the transfer.

(d) A grantor’s creditor may bring an action under article one-a, chapter forty of this code to avoid a transfer to a qualified self-settled spendthrift trust or otherwise to enforce a claim that existed on the date of the grantor’s transfer to such trust within four years after the date of the grantor’s transfer to such trust to which such claim relates.

(e) A creditor shall have only such rights with respect to a grantor’s transfer to a qualified self-settled spendthrift trust as are provided in this section. No creditor and no other person has any claim or cause of action against any trustee, trust adviser, trust director or any person involved in the counseling, drafting, preparation or execution of, or transfers to, a qualified self-settled spendthrift trust.

(f) If a grantor makes more than one transfer to the same qualified self-settled spendthrift trust, the following rules apply:

(1) The grantor’s making of a subsequent transfer shall be disregarded in determining a

creditor’s claim with respect to whether a prior transfer is valid under this section;

(2) With respect to each subsequent transfer by the grantor, the four-year limitations period provided in subsection (d) of this section, with respect to actions brought under article one-a of chapter forty of this code with respect to the subsequent transfer, commences on the date of such subsequent transfer; and

(3) Any distribution to a beneficiary is deemed to have been made from the latest such transfer.

(g) The movement to this state of the administration of an existing trust, which, after such movement to the state, meets for the first time all of the requirements of a qualified self-settled spendthrift trust, shall be treated, for purposes of this section, as a transfer to this trust by the grantor on the date of such movement of all of the assets previously transferred to the trust by the grantor.

§44D-5-503b. Definitions.


As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

(a) “Qualified trustee” means any person who is a natural person residing within the state or a legal entity authorized to engage in trust business within the state and who maintains or arranges for custody within the state of some or all of the property that has been transferred to the trust by the grantor, maintains records within the state for the trust on an exclusive or nonexclusive basis, prepares or arranges for the preparation within the state of fiduciary income tax returns for the trust or otherwise materially participates within the state in the administration of the trust. A trustee is not a qualified trustee if such trustee’s authority to make distributions of income or principal or both are subject to the direction of someone who, were that person a trustee of the trust, would not meet the requirements to be a qualified trustee.

(b) “Independent qualified trustee” means a qualified trustee who is not, and whose actions are not, subject to direction by:

(1) The grantor;

(2) Any natural person who is not a resident of the state;

(3) Any entity that is not authorized to engage in trust business within the state;

(4) The grantor’s spouse;

(5) A parent of the grantor;

(6) Any descendant of the grantor; or

(7) A sibling of the grantor.

(c) “Qualified interest” means a grantor’s interest in a qualified self-settled spendthrift trust, to the extent that such interest entitles the grantor to receive distributions of income, principal or both in the sole discretion of a qualified trustee. A grantor may have a qualified interest in a qualified self-settled spendthrift trust and also have an interest in the same trust that is not a qualified interest, and the rules of section five hundred five of this article shall apply to each interest of the grantor in the same trust other than the grantor’s qualified interest.

(d) “Qualified self-settled spendthrift trust” means a trust if:

(1) The trust is irrevocable;

(2) The trust is created during the grantor’s lifetime;

(3) There is, at all times when distributions could be made to the grantor pursuant to the grantor’s qualified interest, at least one beneficiary other than the grantor: (i) To whom income may be distributed if the grantor’s qualified interest relates to trust income; (ii) to whom principal may be distributed if the grantor’s qualified interest relates to trust principal; or (iii) to whom both income and principal may be distributed if the grantor’s qualified interest relates to both trust income and principal;

(4) The trust has at all times at least one qualified trustee who may be, but need not be, an independent qualified trustee;

(5) The trust instrument expressly incorporates the laws of this state to govern the validity, construction and administration of the trust;

(6) The trust instrument includes a spendthrift provision, as defined in section five hundred two of this article, that restrains both voluntary and involuntary transfer of the grantor’s qualified interest;

(7) The grantor does not have the right to disapprove distributions from the trust; and

(8) The grantor duly executes a qualified affidavit before or substantially contemporaneously with the making of the transfer of the asset or assets into the trust.

(e) “Qualified affidavit” means a duly executed affidavit of the grantor which contains under oath all of the following statements, or statements substantially to the effect:

(1) The property being transferred to the trust was not derived from unlawful activities;

(2) The grantor has full right, title and authority to transfer the property to the trust;

(3) The grantor will not be rendered insolvent immediately after the transfer of the property to the trust;

(4) The grantor does not intend to defraud any creditor by transferring the property to the trust;

(5) There are no pending or threatened court actions against the grantor except for any court action expressly identified in the affidavit or an attachment to the affidavit;

(6) The grantor is not involved in any administrative proceeding except for any proceeding expressly identified in the affidavit or an attachment to the affidavit;

(7) The grantor is not indebted on account of an agreement or order of court for the payment of support or alimony in favor of such transferor’s spouse, former spouse or children, or for a division or distribution of property incident to a judicial proceeding with respect to a divorce or annulment in favor of such transferor’s spouse or former spouse, except for any such indebtedness expressly identified in the affidavit or an attachment to the affidavit; and

(8) The grantor does not contemplate at the time of the transfer the filing for relief under the Bankruptcy Code of the United States.

An affidavit is defective and is not a qualified affidavit if it materially fails to meet the requirements set forth in this subsection. An affidavit is not considered defective and is a qualified affidavit if it contains any nonsubstantive variances from the language set forth in this subsection, it contains statements or representations in addition to those required in this subsection which do not materially contradict the required statements or representations or there are any technical errors in the form, substance or method of preparation or execution of the affidavit if those errors were not the fault of the affiant and the affiant reasonably relied upon another person to prepare or notarize the affidavit.

§44D-5-503c. Vacancies; revocability of trust; right to withdraw.


(a) A vacancy in the position of qualified trustee that occurs for any reason, whether or not there is then serving another trustee, shall be filled in the following order of priority:

(1) By a person eligible to be a qualified trustee and who is designated pursuant to the terms of the trust instrument to act as successor trustee;

(2) By a person eligible to be a qualified trustee and who is designated by unanimous agreement of the qualified beneficiaries; or

(3) By a person eligible to be a qualified trustee and who is appointed by the court pursuant to any of the provisions of article seven of this chapter.

(b) A vacancy in the position of independent qualified trustee that occurs for any reason, whether or not there is then serving another trustee, shall be filled in the following order of priority:

(1) By a person eligible to be an independent qualified trustee and who is designated pursuant to the terms of the trust instrument to act as successor trustee; or

(2) By a person eligible to be an independent qualified trustee and who is designated by unanimous agreement of the qualified beneficiaries; or

(3) By a person eligible to be an independent qualified trustee and who is appointed by the court pursuant to any of the provisions of article seven of this chapter.

(c) A trust instrument shall not be deemed revocable on account of the inclusion of any one or more of the following rights, powers, and interests:

(1) A power of appointment, exercisable by the grantor by will or other written instrument effective only upon the grantor’s death, other than a power to appoint to the grantor’s estate or the creditors of the grantor’s estate;

(2) The grantor’s qualified interest in the trust;

(3) The grantor’s right to receive income or principal pursuant to an ascertainable standard;

(4) The grantor’s potential or actual receipt of income or principal from a charitable remainder unitrust or charitable remainder annuity trust (each within the meaning of Section 664(d) of the Internal Revenue Code) and the grantor’s right, at any time, and from time to time, to release, in writing delivered to the qualified trustee, all or any part of the grantor’s retained interest in such trust;

(5) The grantor’s receipt each year of a percentage, not to exceed five percent, specified in the trust instrument of the initial value of the trust assets or their value determined from time to time pursuant to the trust instrument;

(6) The grantor’s right to remove a qualified trustee or independent qualified trustee and to appoint a new trustee who meets the same criteria;

(7) The grantor’s potential or actual use of real property held under a personal residence trust (within the meaning of Section 2702(c) of the Internal Revenue Code);

(8) The grantor’s potential or actual receipt or use of a qualified annuity interest (within the meaning of Section 2702 of the Internal Revenue Code);

(9) The ability of a qualified trustee, whether pursuant to discretion or direction, to pay, after the grantor’s death, all or any part of the grantor’s debts outstanding at the time of the grantor’s death, the expenses of administering the grantor’s estate, or any federal or state estate, inheritance, or death tax imposed on or with respect to the grantor’s estate; and

(10) A grantor’s potential or actual receipt of income or principal to pay, in whole or in part, income taxes due on trust income, or the direct payment of such taxes to the applicable tax authorities, pursuant to a provision in the trust instrument that expressly provides for the direct payment of such taxes or the reimbursement of the grantor for such tax payments.

(d) A beneficiary who has the right to withdraw his or her entire beneficial interest in a trust shall be treated as its grantor to the extent of such withdrawal right, when such right to withdraw has lapsed, been released, or otherwise expired, without regard to the limitations otherwise imposed by subsection (b), section five hundred five of this article.

§44D-5-505. Creditor’s claim against grantor.


(a) Whether or not the terms of a trust instrument contain a spendthrift provision, the following rules apply:

(1) During the lifetime of the grantor, the property of a revocable trust is subject to claims of the grantor’s creditors, except to the extent otherwise provided in sections five hundred three-a, five hundred three-b and five hundred three-c of this article.

(2) During the lifetime of the grantor, with respect to an irrevocable trust, a creditor or assignee of the grantor may reach the maximum amount that can be distributed to or for the grantor’s benefit. If a trust has more than one grantor, the amount the creditor or assignee of a particular grantor may reach may not exceed the grantor’s interest in the portion of the trust attributable to that grantor’s contribution.

(3) After the death of a grantor, and subject to the grantor’s right to direct the source from which liabilities will be paid, the property of a trust that was revocable at the grantor’s death is subject to claims of the creditors of the deceased grantor, to the extent the grantor’s probate estate is inadequate to satisfy them, and with such claims payable in order of priority of the following classes:

(A) The costs and expenses of administration of the grantor’s estate;

(B) Reasonable funeral expenses;

(C) Debts and taxes with preference under federal law;

(D) Unpaid child support which is due and owing at the time of the decedent’s death;

(E) Debts and taxes with preference under other laws of the State of West Virginia;

(F) Reasonable and necessary medical and hospital expenses of the last illness of the decedent, including compensation for persons attending the decedent during his or her last illness; and

(G) All other claims.

(b) For purposes of this section:

(1) During the period the power may be exercised, the holder of a power of withdrawal is treated in the same manner as the grantor of a revocable trust to the extent of the property subject to the power; and

(2) Upon the lapse, release or waiver of the power, the holder is treated as the grantor of the trust only to the extent the value of the property affected by the lapse, release or waiver exceeds the greater of the amount specified in Section 2041(b)(2), Section 2503(b) or Section 2514(e) of the Internal Revenue Code.


 

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