WEST virginia legislature
2019 FIRST EXTRAORIDINARY session
House Bill 115
By Delegate Hanshaw (Mr. Speaker) and Miley
[By Request of the Executive]
[Introduced May 20, 2019]
A BILL to amend and reenact §49-4-601 of the Code of West Virginia, 1931, as amended, relating generally to court actions in abuse and neglect proceedings and appointment of counsel in such proceedings; requiring a petition to include the names of all parents, guardians, custodians and other persons standing in loco parentis with the child who is the subject of the petition as well as an express statement as to whether each person named is alleged to have abused or neglected the child; requiring courts to appoint counsel for the child and any other named person who is without counsel prior to the initial hearing; clarifying when a court may and may not appoint counsel; and establishing criteria for appointment of counsel for unrepresented persons when necessary to ensure fundamental fairness.
Be it enacted by the Legislature of West Virginia:
ARTICLE 4. COURT ACTIONS.
Procedures in Cases of Child Neglect or Abuse.
§49-4-601. Petition to court when child believed neglected or abused; venue; notice; right to counsel; continuing legal education; findings; proceedings; procedure.
(a) Petitioner and venue. ─ If the department or a reputable person believes that a child is neglected or abused, the department or the person may present a petition setting forth the facts to the circuit court in the county in which the child resides, or if the petition is being brought by the department, in the county in which the custodial respondent or other named party abuser resides, or in which the abuse or neglect occurred, or to the judge of the court in vacation. Under no circumstance may a party file a petition in more than one county based on the same set of facts.
(b) Contents of Petition. ─ The
petition shall be verified by the oath of some credible person having knowledge
of the facts. The petition shall allege specific conduct including time and
place, how the conduct comes within the statutory definition of neglect or
abuse with references
thereto to the statute, any supportive
services provided by the department to remedy the alleged circumstances, and
the relief sought. Each petition shall name as a party each parent,
guardian, custodian, other person standing in loco parentis of or
to the child allegedly neglected or abused and state with specificity whether
each parent, guardian, custodian, or person standing in loco parentis
is alleged to have abused or neglected the child.
(c) Court action upon filing of petition. ─ Upon filing of the petition, the court shall set a time and place for a hearing and shall appoint counsel for the child. When there is an order for temporary custody pursuant to this article, the preliminary hearing shall be held within 10 days of the order continuing or transferring custody, unless a continuance for a reasonable time is granted to a date certain, for good cause shown.
(d) Department action upon filing of the petition. ─ At the time of the institution of any proceeding under this article, the department shall provide supportive services in an effort to remedy circumstances detrimental to a child.
(e) Notice of hearing. ─
(1) The petition and notice of the hearing shall be
served upon both parents and any other guardian, custodian, or person
standing in loco parentis, giving to
the parents or
custodian those persons at least five days' actual notice of a
preliminary hearing and at least 10 days' notice of any other hearing.
(2) Notice shall be given to the department, any foster or pre-adoptive parent, and any relative providing care for the child.
(3) In cases where personal service within West
Virginia cannot be obtained after due diligence upon any parent or other
custodian, a copy of the petition and notice of the hearing shall be mailed to
the person by certified mail, addressee only, return receipt requested, to the
last known address of the person. If the person signs the certificate, service
be is complete and the certificate shall be filed as proof of the
service with the clerk of the circuit court.
(4) If service cannot be obtained by personal service or by certified mail, notice shall be by publication as a Class II legal advertisement in compliance with §59-3-1 et seq. of this code.
(5) A notice of hearing
shall specify the time and place of
the hearing hearings, the
right to counsel of the child, and parents, or and other guardians,
custodians, at every stage of the proceedings and other persons
standing in loco parentis with the child and the fact that
the proceedings can result in the permanent termination of the parental rights.
(6) Failure to object to defects in the petition and notice may not be construed as a waiver.
(f) Right to counsel. ─
(1) In any proceeding
under this article, the child, his or her parents, and his or her legally
established custodian or other persons standing in loco parentis to him
or her has the right to be represented by counsel at every stage of the
proceedings and shall be informed by the court of their right to be so
represented and that if they cannot pay for the services of counsel, that
counsel will be appointed
(1) In any proceeding under this article, the child shall have counsel to represent his or her interests at all stages of the proceedings.
(2) Counsel shall be
appointed in the initial order. For parents, legal guardians, and other persons
standing in loco parentis, the representation may only continue after
the first appearance the parent or other persons standing in loco parentis cannot
pay for the services of counsel
(2) The court’s initial order shall appoint counsel for the child and for any parent, guardian, custodian, or other person standing in loco parentis with the child if such person is without retained counsel.
3) Counsel for other parties shall only be
appointed upon request for appointment of counsel. If the requesting parties
have not retained counsel and cannot pay for the services of counsel, the court
shall, by order entered of record, appoint an attorney or attorneys to represent
the other party or parties and so inform the parties
(3) The court shall, at the initial hearing in the matter, determine whether persons other than the child for whom counsel has been appointed:
(A) Have retained counsel; and
(B) Are financially able to retain counsel.
(4) A parent, guardian, custodian, or other person standing in loco parentis with the child who is alleged to have neglected or abused the child and who has not retained counsel and is financially unable to retain counsel beyond the initial hearing, shall be afforded appointed counsel at every stage of the proceedings.
Under no circumstances may the same attorney represent both the child and another
party. the other party or parties., nor may the The same attorney
may not represent both parents or custodians more than one
parent or custodian: However Provided, That one
attorney may represent both parents or custodians where both parents or guardians
custodians consent to this representation after the attorney fully
discloses to the client the possible conflict and where the attorney assures
advises the court that she or he is able to represent each client
without impairing her or his professional judgment. ; however, if If
more than one child from a family is involved in the proceeding, one attorney
may represent all the children. (5) (6)
A parent who is a co-petitioner is entitled to his or her own attorney. (6) (7) The
court may allow to each attorney so appointed pursuant to this
section a fee in the same amount which appointed counsel can receive in
(8) The court shall, sua sponte or upon motion, appoint counsel to any unrepresented party if, at any stage of the proceedings, the court determines doing so is necessary to satisfy the requirements of fundamental fairness.
(g) Continuing education for counsel. ─ Any attorney representing a party under this article shall receive a minimum of eight hours of continuing legal education training per reporting period on child abuse and neglect procedure and practice. In addition to this requirement, any attorney appointed to represent a child must first complete training on representation of children that is approved by the administrative office of the Supreme Court of Appeals. The Supreme Court of Appeals shall develop procedures for approval and certification of training required under this section. Where no attorney has completed the training required by this subsection, the court shall appoint a competent attorney with demonstrated knowledge of child welfare law to represent the parent or child. Any attorney appointed pursuant to this section shall perform all duties required of an attorney licensed to practice law in the State of West Virginia.
(h) Right to be heard. ─ In any proceeding pursuant to this article, the party or parties having custodial or other parental rights or responsibilities to the child shall be afforded a meaningful opportunity to be heard, including the opportunity to testify and to present and cross-examine witnesses. Foster parents, pre-adoptive parents, and relative caregivers shall also have a meaningful opportunity to be heard.
(i) Findings of the court. ─ Where relevant, the court shall consider the efforts of the department to remedy the alleged circumstances. At the conclusion of the adjudicatory hearing, the court shall make a determination based upon the evidence and shall make findings of fact and conclusions of law as to whether the child is abused or neglected and whether the respondent is abusing, neglecting, or, if applicable, a battered parent, all of which shall be incorporated into the order of the court. The findings must be based upon conditions existing at the time of the filing of the petition and proven by clear and convincing evidence.
(j) Priority of proceedings. ─ Any petition filed and any proceeding held under this article shall, to the extent practicable, be given priority over any other civil action before the court, except proceedings under §48-27-309 of this code and actions in which trial is in progress. Any petition filed under this article shall be docketed immediately upon filing. Any hearing to be held at the end of an improvement period and any other hearing to be held during any proceedings under this article shall be held as nearly as practicable on successive days and, with respect to the hearing to be held at the end of an improvement period, shall be held as close in time as possible after the end of the improvement period and shall be held within 30 days of the termination of the improvement period.
safeguards. ─ The petition may not be taken as confessed. A
transcript or recording shall be made of all proceedings unless waived by all
parties to the proceeding. The rules of evidence
shall apply. Following
the court's determination, it shall be inquired of ask the
parents or custodians whether or not appeal is desired and the response
transcribed. A negative response may not be construed as a waiver. The evidence
shall be transcribed and made available to the parties or their counsel as soon
as practicable, if the same transcript is required for purposes
of further proceedings. If an indigent person intends to pursue further
proceedings, the court reporter shall furnish a transcript of the hearing
without cost to the indigent person if an affidavit is filed stating that he or
she cannot pay for the transcript. therefor
NOTE: The purpose of this bill is related to the appointment of counsel and general changes in abuse and neglect proceedings.
Strike-throughs indicate language that would be stricken from a heading or the present law and underscoring indicates new language that would be added.